Present Value Interest Factor of Annuity (PVIFA)

PVIFA, or Present Value Interest Factor of Annuity

The present value interest factor of an annuity (PVIFA) is one of the variables used to calculate the present value of a series of annuity payments. In other words, it’s a number that can be used to determine the present value of a sequence of payments. Due to its length, the term “present value interest factor of annuity” is frequently shortened to “present value annuity factor” or “PVIFA.”

  • A formula known as PVIFA (Present Value Interest Factor of Annuity) is used to determine the current value of a series of annuity payments.

  • PVIFA is a number that, to put it another way, represents the present value of a series of payments.

  • For a predetermined number of time periods following the first payment (r), interest is generated at a specific rate (r) for the subsequent payments (n). This approach is used to ascertain an annuity’s current value.

  • By dividing the monthly payment amounts by the PVIFA factor, one can calculate the present value of an annuity.

Read on to learn more about present value interest factors of annuities (PVIFA) and to gain a better understanding of them.

PVIFA Formula

When multiplied by the total amount of recurring payments, the present value interest factor of an annuity can be used to determine the present value of a series of annuities. A series of (n) consecutive withdrawals are perfectly financed by the initial deposit’s interest rate (r), which can be expressed as the following formula:

  • PVIFA equals (1 – (1 + r)-n) / r

The present value of an ordinary annuity is also determined using the PVIFA variable.

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Information about PVIFA

The foundation of the present value interest component is the fundamental financial idea of the time value of money. According to the principle, a sum of money that is worth more now will be worth more in the future.

  • And the explanation appears to be that the value of money can rise over time. Any money received sooner is worthwhile because it can be invested to earn interest so long as the system is capable of doing so.

  • The present value interest element is more frequently used in annuity research. When deciding whether to accept the full payment right away or annuity installments at a later time, the present value factor interest of annuity (PVIFA) can be helpful. Using the sum that has been evaluated, you can determine the value of the payments in their entirety as well as the payouts from an annuity as a whole.

  • Keeping in mind that the present value interest component can only be calculated when the annuity payments are for a specific amount over a specific time period is another crucial consideration. The current value of a string of upcoming annuities is determined using the annuity’s present value interest component.

The PVIFA Formula’s Discount Rate

The Present Value Interest Factor is Calculated Using the Discount Rate

The expected rate of return for future periods is approximately represented by the discount rate used in the calculation of the present value interest factor. According to the length of annuity payments and the investment vehicle used, it is risk-adjusted. Lower net present value calculations are the result of higher interest rates. This is due to the fact that if high returns are expected in the future, $1 today has less value.

Issues Relating to an Annuity’s Present Value

The following general formula is used to solve issues involving an annuity’s present value:

The annuity’s present value is calculated as follows: Factor x Annuity Amount

We can find a solution for the third variable if we know the first two. The annuity’s present value, interest rate, number of periods, and/or amount can all be calculated in this way.

Annuity Present Value Interest Factor of Due

The PVIFA, like all present value formulas, is founded on the idea of the time value of money, which essentially states that $1 today is worth more than at some point in the future.

Given that money has the potential to grow over time, the formulas make it possible to calculate the present value of an annuity, allowing wise investors to determine how much their money is worth right now.

Say, for example, that you have the choice between receiving $10,000 today or in two years. Of course, you’d choose the first one. Anytime you receive money, it will always be the same amount; the key is timing. If you receive $10,000 today, it will be more valuable and useful to you than if you wait to get it.

Not receiving the money today has opportunity costs, such as losing out on any potential interest you might have earned over the next two years.

A table showing the present value of annuities

A number of methods exist for figuring out an annuity’s present value. You can find a calculator at the bottom of this article, but you can also use Excel spreadsheets or the formula to manually calculate the PV.

Having a PVIFA table or chart is one very popular technique. This makes looking up the factor and viewing the interest rates and periods in a table very simple.

You can then compute the present value by multiplying that factor by the payment amount. An illustration of a present value interest factor of an annuity table is shown below:

Use tables to calculate the PVIFA Value.

PVIFA values for periods of 1 to 50 are shown in the following table, along with interest rates ranging from 1% to 22%.

How do I create an Excel PVIFA table? Using Excel, we produced the table below. Use the cell formula in the 1 x 1 location (shown below in bold) as =(1-(1+$B$2)(-A3))/($B$2) to replicate this table by setting up the desired periods and interest rates first. Then, to fill the tables, drag the formula to the right and then downward.

Example of PVIFA Formula

With the following formula, the PVIFA can be determined:

PVIFA = 1 āˆ’ (1 + r)āˆ’nā€‹ / r

Periodic rate per period equals r.

N is the number of periods.

Using Excel’s PVIFA function, you can figure out the present value of an annuity factor. This function’s syntax is:


These values are used in the formula:

The interest rate expressed as a decimal number for each period is called the rate. For instance, enter 0.06 if the interest rate is 6%.

ā€¢ NPER is the duration in years, measured in periods, of an annuity. For instance, enter 10 if it takes an annuity 10 years to mature. If it does not take a whole number of years, round up or down to make this value an integer. For instance, enter 8 if it will take your annuity 7.5 years to finish.

A regular annuity’s constant payment amount per period, expressed in dollars and cents, is known as the pmt. If you omit this value, the formula will determine the present value of a regular annuity with one final payment. It is an optional value.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What Is An Annuity’s Present Value?

Ans – The cost or value of a fixed stream of future payments as of today is known as the present value of an annuity. This can be discovered by applying a fixed rate of discount to each cash flow. This can be computed using a variety of financial instruments, such as calculators and tables found online or in books of tables, including both.

Q2. What Sets the Present Value Aside from the Annuity Factor When Amortizing a Loan?

Ans – While the term “annuity” is more commonly used to refer to a series of cash flows, the term “present value” refers to a single cash flow at a specific point in time. Calculating the current value or cost of a fixed stream of future payments is done using an annuity’s present value. The annuity factor, on the other hand, is used to determine how much money must be invested at a given rate of return over a specific time period in order for it to accumulate to a given amount in the future.

Q3. What Is An Annuity Table’s Present Value?

Ans – The variables that were considered when figuring out a specific cash flow at a particular point in time are listed in the present value of the annuity table. This can be accomplished by discounting each cash flow back at a predetermined rate using a variety of financial tools, such as calculators and tables.

Q4. How Can Cash Flows Back At A Specific Rate Be Discounted Using The Present Value Of An Annuity Table?

Ans – Using the aforementioned table, you would look across the top row for the number of periods and down the left side for the interest (or discount) rate to determine a specific cash flow, or annuity factor. An equation using these values produces the present value of an annuity.

Q5. What Is A Table Of Present Value?

Ans – Using various financial tools, such as tables and calculators, one can calculate a specific cash flow or annuity by discounting each cash flow back at a specific rate. The term “present value” refers to a single cash flow at a specific point in time, whereas the term “annuity” is more broadly used to refer to a sequence of cash flows.